The 'Sacred' Kurral of Tiruvalluva-Nayanar

THIRUVALLUVAR ( - ), translated by G. U. POPE (1820 - 1908)

Tirukkural (holy couplet) is believed to be written more than 2000 years ago by sage Thiruvalluvar.

This is a metric translation by Rev. G.U.Pope, who says, "In regard to the translation, I may venture to say that it is faithful, and that I have not read into the rendering a single idea or thought which there were not good grounds for supposing that the poet intended to convey. I thought it best to try to give a metrical translation. The Tamil scholar will see that I have tried to reproduce even the rhythm in many cases, but I could not retain the inimitable grace, condensation, and point of the original."

The Kural has influenced several luminaries including Leo Tolstoy, Mahatma Gandhi, and Albert Schweitzer.

The Kural is hailed for its lofty wisdom. It is said that the Kural contains all things and there is nothing that it does not contain.

This is apparent from the following list of chapter headings of this work (The chapter numbers are prefixed.)

VIRTUE

1-The praise of god, 2-The excellence of rain, 3-The greatness of ascetics, 4-Assertion of the strength of virtue - domestic life, 5-Domestic life, 6-The goodness of the help to domestic life, 7-The obtaining of sons, 8-The possession of love, 9-Cherishing guests, 10-The utterance of pleasant words, 11-The knowledge of benefits conferred-gratitude, 12-Impartiality, 13-The possession of self-restraint, 14-The possession of decorum, 15-Not coveting another's wife, 16-The possession of patience - forbearance, 17-Not envying, 18-Not coveting, 19-Not backbiting, 20-The not speaking profitless words, 21-Dread of evil deeds, 22-The knowledge of what is befitting a man's position, 23-Giving, 24-Renown, 25-The possession of benevolence, 26- The renunciation of flesh - penance, 27-Penance, 28-Inconsistent conduct, 29-The absence of fraud,30-Veracity, 31-The not being angry, 32-Not doing evil, 33-Not killing, 34-Instability, 35-Renunciation, 36-Knowledge of the true, 37-The extirpation of desire, 38-Fate,

WEALTH

39-The greatness of a king, 40-Learning, 41-Ignorance, 42-Hearing, 43-The possession of knowledge, 44-The correction of faults, 45-Seeking the aid of great men, 46-Avoiding mean associations, 47-Acting after due consideration, 48-The knowledge of power, 49-Knowing the fitting time, 50-Knowing the place, 51-Selection and confidence, 52-Selection and employment, 53-Cherishing one's kindred, 54-Unforgetfulness, 55-The right sceptre, 56-The cruel sceptre, 57-Absence of terrorism, 58-Benignity, 59-Detectives, 60-Energy, 61-Unsluggishness, 62-Manly effort, 63-hopefulness in trouble, 64-the office of minister of state, 65-power in speech, 66-purity in action, 67-Power in action, 68-The method of acting, 69-The envoy, 70-Conduct in the presence of the king, 71-The knowledge of indications, 72-The knowledge of the council chamber, 73-Not to dread the council, 74-The land, 75-The fortification, 76-Way of accumulating wealth, 77-The excellence of an army, 78-Military spirit, 79-Friendship, 80-Investigation in forming friendships, 81-Familiarity, 82-Evil friendship, 83-Unreal friendship, 84-Folly, 85-Ignorance, 86-Hostility, 87-The might of hatred, 88-Knowing the quality of hate, 89-Enmity within, 90-Not offending the great, 91-Being led by women, 92-Wanton women, 93-Not drinking palm-wine, 94-Gaming, 95-Medicine, 96-Nobility, 97-Honour, 98-Greatness, 99-Perfectness, 100-Courtesy, 102-Shame, 103-The way of maintaining the family, 104-Agriculture, 105-Poverty, 106-Mendicancy, 107-The dread of mendicancy, 108-Baseness,

LOVE

109-Mental disturbance caused by the beauty of the princess, 110-Recognition of the signs (of mutual love), 111-Rejoicing in the embrace, 112-The praise of her beauty, 113-Declaration of love's special excellence, 114-The abandonment of reserve, 115-The announcement of the rumour, 116-Separation unendurable, 117-Complainings, 118-Eyes consumed with grief, 119-The pallid hue, 120-The solitary anguish, 121-Sad memories, 122-The visions of the night, 123-Lamentations at eventide, 124-Wasting away, 125-Soliloquy, 126-Reserve overcome, 127-Mutual desire, 128-The reading of the signs, 129-Desire for reunion, 130-Expostulation with oneself, 131-Pouting, 132-Feigned anger, 133-The pleasures of temporary variance.

You can pick a chapter heading of interest and listen to the audio for that chapter. For instance, if you are interested in the chapter "Feigned anger" (which is chapter 132), you can listen to the audio for chapter 132. Summary by Jothi.

Genre(s): Ancient

Language: Tamil

Section Chapter Reader Time
Play 01 Chapter-1 - The praise of god - Kurals 1 to 10 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:29
Play 02 Chapter-2 - The excellence of rain - Kurals 11 to 20 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:19
Play 03 Chapter-3 - The greatness of ascetics - Kurals 21 to 30 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:48
Play 04 Chapter-4 - Assertion of the strength of virtue - Kurals 31 to 40 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:13
Play 05 Chapter-5 - Domestic life - Kurals 41 to 50 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:06
Play 06 Chapter-6 - The goodness of the help to domestic life - Kurals 51 to 60 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:09
Play 07 Chapter-7 - The obtaining of sons - Kurals 61 to 70 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:44
Play 08 Chapter-8 - The possession of love - Kurals 71 to 80 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:53
Play 09 Chapter-9 - Cherishing guests - Kurals 81 to 90 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:05
Play 10 Chapter-10 -The utterance of pleasant words - Kurals 91 to 100 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:49
Play 11 Chapter-11 -The knowledge of benefits conferred-gratitude - Kurals 101 to 110 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:12
Play 12 Chapter-12 -Impartiality - Kurals 111 to 120 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:13
Play 13 Chapter-13 -The possession of self-restraint - Kurals 121 to 130 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:22
Play 14 Chapter-14 -The possession of decorum - Kurals 131 to 140 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:58
Play 15 Chapter-15 -Not coveting another's wife - Kurals 141 to 150 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:35
Play 16 Chapter-16 -The possession of patience - forbearance - Kurals 151 to 160 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:00
Play 17 Chapter-17 -Not envying - Kurals 161 to 170 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:05
Play 18 Chapter-18 -Not coveting - Kurals 171 to 180 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:28
Play 19 Chapter-19 -Not backbiting - Kurals 181 to 190 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:37
Play 20 Chapter-20 -The not speaking profitless words - Kurals 191 to 200 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:13
Play 21 Chapter-21 -Dread of evil deeds - Kurals 201 to 210 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:19
Play 22 Chapter-22 -The knowledge of what is befitting a man's position - Kurals 211 to 220 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:24
Play 23 Chapter-23 -Giving - Kurals 221 to 230 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:08
Play 24 Chapter-24 -Renown - Kurals 231 to 240 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:17
Play 25 Chapter-25 -The possession of benevolence - Kurals 241 to 250 Jothi Tharavant
00:06:00
Play 26 Chapter-26 -The renunciation of flesh - Kurals 251 to 260 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:45
Play 27 Chapter-27 -Penance - Kurals 261 to 270 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:00
Play 28 Chapter-28 -Inconsistent conduct - Kurals 271 to 280 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:40
Play 29 Chapter-29 -The absence of fraud - Kurals 281 to 290 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:26
Play 30 Chapter-30 -Veracity - Kurals 291 to 300 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:51
Play 31 Chapter-31 -The not being angry - Kurals 301 to 310 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:02
Play 32 Chapter-32 -Not doing evil - Kurals 311 to 320 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:29
Play 33 Chapter-33 -Not killing - Kurals 321 to 330 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:11
Play 34 Chapter-34 -Instability - Kurals 331 to 340 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:43
Play 35 Chapter-35 -Renunciation. - Kurals 341 to 350 Jothi Tharavant
00:06:00
Play 36 Chapter-36 -Knowledge of the true. - Kurals 351 to 360 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:16
Play 37 Chapter-37 -The extirpation of desire - Kurals 361 to 370 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:43
Play 38 Chapter-38 -Fate - Kurals 371 to 380 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:08
Play 39 Chapter-39 -The greatness of a king - Kurals 381 to 390 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:25
Play 40 Chapter-40 -Learning - Kurals 391 to 400 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:04
Play 41 Chapter-41 -Ignorance - Kurals 401 to 410 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:53
Play 42 Chapter-42 -Hearing. - Kurals 411 to 420 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:49
Play 43 Chapter-43 -The possession of knowledge - Kurals 421 to 430 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:37
Play 44 Chapter-44 -The correction of faults. - Kurals 421 to 430 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:38
Play 45 Chapter-45 -Seeking the aid of great men - Kurals 441 to 450 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:52
Play 46 Chapter-46 -Avoiding mean associations - Kurals 451 to 460 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:55
Play 47 Chapter-47 -Acting after due consideration - Kurals 461 to 470 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:24
Play 48 Chapter-48 -The knowledge of power - Kurals 471 to 480 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:10
Play 49 Chapter-49 -Knowing the fitting time - Kurals - 481 to 490 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:51
Play 50 Chapter-50 -Knowing the place - Kurals 491 to 500 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:52
Play 51 Chapter-51 -Selection and confidence - Kurals 501 to 510 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:04
Play 52 Chapter-52 -Selection and employment - Kurals 461 to 470 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:05
Play 53 Chapter-53 -Cherishing one's kindred - Kurals 521 to 530 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:46
Play 54 Chapter-54 -Unforgetfulness - Kurals 531 to 540 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:57
Play 55 Chapter-55 -The right sceptre - Kurals 541 to 550 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:42
Play 56 Chapter-56 -The cruel sceptre - Kurals 551 to 560 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:40
Play 57 Chapter-57 -Absence of terrorism. - Kurals 561 to 570 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:37
Play 58 Chapter-58 -Benignity - Kurals 571 to 580 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:56
Play 59 Chapter-59 -Detectives. - Kurals 581 to 590 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:42
Play 60 Chapter-60 -Energy - Kurals 591 to 600 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:37
Play 61 Chapter-61 -Unsluggishness. - Kurals 601 to 610 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:27
Play 62 Chapter-62 -Manly effort - Kurals 611 to 620 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:52
Play 63 Chapter-63 -Hopefulness in trouble - Kurals 621 to 630 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:37
Play 64 Chapter-64 -The office of minister of state - Kurals 631 to 640 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:38
Play 65 Chapter-65 -Power in speech - Kurals 641 to 650 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:54
Play 66 Chapter-66 -Purity in action - Kurals 651 to 660 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:36
Play 67 Chapter-67 -Power in action - Kurals 661 to 670 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:39
Play 68 Chapter-68 -The method of acting - Kurals 671 to 680 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:55
Play 69 Chapter-69 -The envoy - Kurals 681 to 690 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:47
Play 70 Chapter-70 -Conduct in the presence of the king - Kurals 691 to 700 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:43
Play 71 Chapter-71 -The knowledge of indications - Kurals 701 to 710 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:36
Play 72 Chapter-72 -The knowledge of the council chamber - Kurals 711 to 720 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:41
Play 73 Chapter-73 -Not to dread the council - Kurals 721 to 730 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:12
Play 74 Chapter-74 -The land - Kurals 731 to 740 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:14
Play 75 Chapter-75 -The fortification - Kurals 741 to 750 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:39
Play 76 Chapter-76 -Way of accumulating wealth - Kurals 751 to 760 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:28
Play 77 Chapter-77 -The excellence of an army - Kurals 761 to 770 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:28
Play 78 Chapter-78 -Military spirit - Kurals 771 to 780 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:52
Play 79 Chapter-79 -Friendship - Kurals 781 to 790 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:36
Play 80 Chapter-80 -Investigation in forming friendships - Kurals 791 to 780 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:37
Play 81 Chapter-81 -Familiarity - Kurals 801 to 810 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:43
Play 82 Chapter-82 -Evil friendship - Kurals 811 to 820 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:51
Play 83 Chapter-83 -Unreal friendship - Kurals 821 to 830 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:41
Play 84 Chapter-84 -Folly - Kurals 831 to 840 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:31
Play 85 Chapter-85 -Ignorance - Kurals 841 to 850 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:54
Play 86 Chapter-86 -Hostility - Kurals 851 to 860 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:28
Play 87 Chapter-87 -The might of hatred - Kurals 861 to 870 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:11
Play 88 Chapter-88 -Knowing the quality of hate - Kurals 871 to 880 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:03
Play 89 Chapter-89 -Enmity within - Kurals 881 to 890 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:49
Play 90 Chapter-90 -Not offending the great - Kurals 891 to 900 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:04
Play 91 Chapter-91 -Being led by women - Kurals 901 to 910 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:01
Play 92 Chapter-92 -Wanton women - Kurals 911 to 920 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:52
Play 93 Chapter-93 -Not drinking palm-wine - Kurals 921 to 930 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:19
Play 94 Chapter-94 -Gaming - Kurals 931 to 940 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:31
Play 95 Chapter-95 -Medicine - Kurals 941 to 950 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:13
Play 96 Chapter-96 -Nobility - Kurals 951 to 960 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:01
Play 97 Chapter-97 -Honour - Kurals 961 to 970 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:06
Play 98 Chapter-98 -Greatness - Kurals 971 to 980 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:46
Play 99 Chapter-99 -Perfectness - Kurals 981 to 990 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:11
Play 100 Chapter-100 -Courtesy - Kurals 991 to 1000 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:17
Play 101 Chapter-101 -Wealth without benefaction - Kurals 1001 to 1010 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:13
Play 102 Chapter-102 -Shame - Kurals 1011 to 1020 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:18
Play 103 Chapter-103 -The way of maintaining the family - Kurals 1021 to 1030 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:22
Play 104 Chapter-104 -Agriculture - Kurals 1031 to 1040 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:31
Play 105 Chapter-105 -Poverty - Kurals 1041 to 1050 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:11
Play 106 Chapter-106 -Mendicancy - Kurals 1051 to 1060 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:09
Play 107 Chapter-107 -The dread of mendicancy - Kurals 1061 to 1070 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:23
Play 108 Chapter-108 -Baseness - Kurals 1071 to 1080 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:33
Play 109 Chapter-109 -Mental disturbance caused by the beauty of the princess - Kurals 1081 to 1090 Jothi Tharavant
00:06:46
Play 110 Chapter-110 -Recognition of the signs (of mutual love) - Kurals 1091 to 1100 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:46
Play 111 Chapter-111 -Rejoicing in the embrace - Kurals 1101 to 1110 Jothi Tharavant
00:06:03
Play 112 Chapter-112 -The praise of her beauty - Kurals 1111 to 1120 Jothi Tharavant
00:06:15
Play 113 Chapter-113 -Declaration of love's special excellence - Kurals 1121 to 1130 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:44
Play 114 Chapter-114 -The abandonment of reserve - Kurals 1131 to1140 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:35
Play 115 Chapter-115 -The announcement of the rumour - Kurals 1141 to 1150 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:24
Play 116 Chapter-116 -Separation unendurable - Kurals 1151 to 1160 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:38
Play 117 Chapter-117 -Complainings - Kurals 1161 to 1170 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:50
Play 118 Chapter-118 -Eyes consumed with grief - Kurals 1171 to 1180 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:58
Play 119 Chapter-119 -The pallid hue - Kurals 1181 to 1190 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:19
Play 120 Chapter-120 -The solitary anguish - Kurals 1191 to 1200 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:20
Play 121 Chapter-121 -Sad memories - Kurals 1201 to 1210 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:33
Play 122 Chapter-122 -The visions of the night - Kurals 1211 to 1220 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:27
Play 123 Chapter-123 -Lamentations at eventide - Kurals 1221 to 1230 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:45
Play 124 Chapter-124 -Wasting away - Kurals 1231 to 1240 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:50
Play 125 Chapter-125 -Soliloquy - Kurals 1241 to 1250 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:31
Play 126 Chapter-126 -Reserve overcome - Kurals 1251 to 1260 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:25
Play 127 Chapter-127 -Mutual desire - Kurals 1261 to 1270 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:41
Play 128 Chapter-128 -The reading of the signs - Kurals 1271 to 1280 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:47
Play 129 Chapter-129 -Desire for reunion - Kurals 1281 to 1290 Jothi Tharavant
00:06:10
Play 130 Chapter-130 -Expostulation with oneself - Kurals 1291 to 1300 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:03
Play 131 Chapter-131 -Pouting - Kurals 1301 to 1310 Jothi Tharavant
00:04:44
Play 132 Chapter-132 -Feigned anger - Kurals 1311 to1320 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:39
Play 133 Chapter-133 -The pleasures of temporary variance - Kurals 1321 to 1330 Jothi Tharavant
00:05:56