Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution

Peter KROPOTKIN (1842 - 1921)

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a book by Peter Kropotkin on the subject of mutual aid, written while he was living in exile in England. It was first published by William Heinemann in London in October 1902. The individual chapters had originally been published in 1890-96 as a series of essays in the British monthly literary magazine, Nineteenth Century.
Written partly in response to Social Darwinism and in particular to Thomas H. Huxley's Nineteenth Century essay, "The Struggle for Existence," Kropotkin's book drew on his experiences in scientific expeditions in Siberia to illustrate the phenomenon of cooperation. After examining the evidence of cooperation in nonhuman animals, "savages," "barbarians," in medieval cities, and in modern times, he concludes that cooperation and mutual aid are as important in the evolution of the species as competition and mutual strife, if not more so. (Summary by Wikipedia)

Genre(s): *Non-fiction, Science

Language: English

Section Chapter Reader Time
Play 00 Introduction Enko
00:23:47
Play 01 Mutual aid among animals Enko
00:58:20
Play 02 Mutual aid among animals (continued) Chapter 2, Part 1 Enko
00:41:01
Play 03 Mutual aid among animals (continued) Chapter 2, Part 2 Enko
00:40:13
Play 04 Mutual aid among savages Chapter 3, Part 1 Enko
00:37:01
Play 05 Mutual aid among savages Chapter 3, Part 2 Enko
00:37:49
Play 06 Mutual aid among the barbarians Enko
01:07:48
Play 07 Mutual aid in the mediaeval city Enko
01:02:13
Play 08 Mutual aid in the mediaeval city (continued) Enko
01:03:12
Play 09 Mutual aid amongst ourselves Enko
01:09:53
Play 10 Mutual aid amongst ourselves (continued) Enko
00:54:15
Play 11 Conclusion Enko
00:12:44