Hildebrand and his Times

William Richard Ward STEPHENS (1839 - 1902)

W.R.W. Stephens, the Anglican Dean of Winchester, writes a short, lively biography of the great church reformer, Hildebrand of Sovana (1015-1085), afterwards Pope Gregory VII, setting his life within the larger context of the struggle for dominance between the Holy Roman Empire and the Papacy during the Middle Ages. The roots of the conflict can be traced to the alliance made between Pope Stephen II and his successors and the Frankish King Pippin and his son Charlemagne to break the power of the Lombard Kingdom in Italy. Later emperors sought first to reform and then to dominate the Papacy, but they finally met their match in Hildebrand, leading to the famous confrontation between Pope and Emperor on the snowy steps of Canossa Castle. Facing an imperial invasion, Pope Gregory took the fatal step of summoning his fierce Norman allies. They sacked and burned Rome and carried Hildebrand off to Salerno where, his body weak but his spirit unbowed, he breathed his last crying, "I have loved righteousness and hated iniquity--therefore I die in exile." After Hildebrand's death, his ally Duchess Matilda, the greatest power in northern Italy, continued the struggle with the tragic Emperor, Henry IV, over investiture and reform, a conflict which was only settled under his perfidious son, Henry V. (Pamela Nagami)

Genre(s): War & Military, Biography & Autobiography, Political Science

Language: English

Section Chapter Reader Time
Play 01 Ch. 1: Introductory. Origin of the connexion between the Papacy and transalpine sovereigns--The corruption of the Papacy after the dissolution of the Carolingian Empire--The revival under Otto the Great--The relapse after the death of Otto III, Pt. 1 Pamela Nagami
00:12:13
Play 02 Ch. 1: Introductory. Origin of the connexion between the Papacy and the transalpine sovereigns--The corruption of the Papacy after the dissolution of the Carolingian Empire--The revival under Otto the Great--The relapse after the death of Otto III, Pt. 2 Pamela Nagami
00:13:37
Play 03 Ch. 2: Degradation of the Papacy--Beginning of a reformation under Henry III--The Rise of Hildebrand, 1033-47 Pamela Nagami
00:16:52
Play 04 Ch. 3: Progress of the reforming movement--The Pontificate of Leo IX, 1047-54, Pt. 1 Pamela Nagami
00:13:08
Play 05 Ch. 3: Progress of the reforming movement--The Pontificate of Leo IX, 1047-54, Pt. 2 Pamela Nagami
00:15:03
Play 06 Ch. 4: The death of Henry III--Pontificate of Victor II and Stephen IX--Irregular election of Benedict X--Election of Nicolas II--Designs of Hildebrand, 1051-59 Pamela Nagami
00:16:52
Play 07 Ch. 5: Pontificate of Nicolas II--Decree respecting method of election to the Papacy--Alliance with the Normans--Degradation of Benedict X--Election of Alexander II--Cadalus of Parma elected anti-pope, 1059-62, Pt. 1 Pamela Nagami
00:11:16
Play 08 Ch. 5: Pontificate of Nicolas II--Decree respecting method of election to the Papacy--Alliance with the Normans--Degradation of Benedict X--Election of Alexander II--Cadulus of Parma elected anti-pope, 1059-62, Pt. 2 Pamela Nagami
00:12:15
Play 09 Ch. 6: Relation of Germany to the Papacy during the minority of Henry IV, 1056-66 Pamela Nagami
00:19:33
Play 10 Ch. 7: The first six years of the reign of Henry IV, 1066-72 Pamela Nagami
00:15:48
Play 11 Ch. 8: State of the Church in Italy--Survey of the position of the Papacy in Europe--Death of Alexander II, 1073 Pamela Nagami
00:22:21
Play 12 Ch. 9: Hildebrand elected pope--First two years of his pontificate, 1073-75, Pt. 1 Pamela Nagami
00:12:36
Play 13 Ch. 9: Hildebrand elected pope--First two years of his pontificate, 1073-75, Pt. 2 Pamela Nagami
00:12:22
Play 14 Ch. 10: Revolt of the Saxons--Beginning of the strife between Henry IV and Gregory VII, 1073-76, Pt. 1 Pamela Nagami
00:10:51
Play 15 Ch. 10: Revolt of the Saxons--Beginning of the strife between Henry IV and Gregory VII, 1073-76, Pt. 2 Pamela Nagami
00:12:41
Play 16 Ch. 11: Deposition of Gregory VII by the Council of Worms--Henry IV excommunicated at Rome by the pope--Diet of Tribur and suspension of the king's authority--Henry escapes from Speir and goes to Italy, January 1076-January 1077 Pamela Nagami
00:20:32
Play 17 Ch. 12: Meeting between Henry and the pope at Canossa--Results of the meeting--Diet of Forcheim--Election of Rudolf of Swabia as anti-king, January-March 1077 Pamela Nagami
00:20:29
Play 18 Ch. 13: The struggle in Germany between Henry and Rudolf--Death of Rudolf--Wibert, archbishop of Ravenna, elected anti-pope--Henry crowned by the anti-pope in Rome--Rome occupied by Robert Wiscard--Sack of Rome--Death of Gregory--Estimate of his character and work--Death of Robert Wiscard, 1077-85, Pt. 1 Pamela Nagami
00:21:34
Play 19 Ch. 13: The struggle in Germany between Henry and Rudolf--Death of Rudolf--Wibert, archbishop of Ravenna, elected anti-pope--Henry crowned by the anti-pope in Rome--Rome occupied by Robert Wiscard--Sack of Rome--Death of Gregory--Estimate of his character and work--Death of Robert Wiscard, 1077-85, Pt. 2 Pamela Nagami
00:19:38
Play 20 Ch. 14: Pontificate of Victor III--Election of Urban II--Revolt of Henry's son Conrad--The Councils of Piacenza and Clermont--Proclamation of the first crusade--Reception of Urban II at Rome, 1086-96 Pamela Nagami
00:22:31
Play 21 Ch. 15: Close of the pontificate of Urban II--Election of Pascal II--Revolt of Henry, son of Henry IV--Death of Henry IV--His character, 1096-1106, Pt. 1 Pamela Nagami
00:16:51
Play 22 Ch. 15: Close of the pontificate of Urban II--Election of Pascal II--Revolt of Henry, son of Henry IV--Death of Henry IV--His character, 1096-1106, Pt. 2 Pamela Nagami
00:17:26
Play 23 Ch. 16: Character of Henry V and of Pascal II--Council of Troyes--Henry's visit to Italy--Scene in St. Peter's, Rome--Coronation of Henry V--Strife between Henry and Pascal--Death of the pope, 1106-18, Pt. 1 Pamela Nagami
00:15:38
Play 24 Ch. 16: Character of Henry V and of Pascal II--Council of Troyes--Henry's visit to Italy--Scene in St. Peter's, Rome--Coronation of Henry V--Strife between Henry and Pascal--Death of the pope, 1106-18, Pt. 2 Pamela Nagami
00:15:23
Play 25 Ch. 17: Pontificate of Gelasius II--Election of Calixtus II--Conference at Strasbourg--Council of Reims--Conference at Mouzon--Council of Worms--The Concordat and end of the investiture strife, 1118-23, Pt. 1 Pamela Nagami
00:19:10
Play 26 Ch. 17: Pontificate of Gelasius II--Election of Calixtus II--Conference at Strasbourg--Council of Reims--Conference at Mouzon--Council of Worms--The Concordat and end of the investiture strife, 1118-23, Pt. 2 Pamela Nagami
00:14:33