An Essay on Crimes and Punishments

VOLTAIRE (1694 - 1778) and Cesare BECCARIA (1738 - 1794), translated by Edward Duncan INGRAHAM (1793 - 1854)

Beccaria's treatise On Crimes and Punishments, which condemns disproportionate and irrational penalties in general as well as torture and the death penalty, is said to mark the peak of Enlightenment in Milan. Its translations were widely read by statesmen and policy makers in Britain, America and France. This translation also features the anonymous commentary, attributed to Voltaire. - Summary by Carolin

Genre(s): Law

Language: English

Section Chapter Reader Time
Play 01 Introduction Crln Yldz Ksr
00:06:06
Play 02 Preface by the Translator of M.D. Voltaire's Commentary Crln Yldz Ksr
00:04:14
Play 03 Chapter I - On the Origin of Punishments Crln Yldz Ksr
00:02:53
Play 04 Chapter II - On the Right to Punish Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 05 Chapter III - Consequences of the foregoing principles Crln Yldz Ksr
00:03:49
Play 06 Chapter IV - Of the Interpretation of Laws Crln Yldz Ksr
00:07:42
Play 07 Chapter V - Of the Obscurity of Laws Crln Yldz Ksr
00:04:10
Play 08 Chapter VI - Of the Proportion between Crimes and Punishments Crln Yldz Ksr
00:07:37
Play 09 Chapter VII - Of Estimating the Degree of Crimes Crln Yldz Ksr
00:04:01
Play 10 Chapter VIII - Of the Division of Crimes Crln Yldz Ksr
00:06:39
Play 11 Chapter IX - Of Honour Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 12 Chapter X - Of Duelling Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 13 Chapter XI - Of Crimes which Disturb Public Tranquillity Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 14 Chapter XII - Of the Intent of Punishments Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 15 Chapter XIII - Of the Credibility of Witnesses Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 16 Chapter XIV - Of Evidence and the Proofs of a Crime, and of the Form of Judgment Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 17 Chapter XV - Of Secret Accusation Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 18 Chapter XVI - Of Torture Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 19 Chapter XVII - Of Pecuniary Punishments Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 20 Chapter XVIII - Of Oaths Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 21 Chapter XIX - Of the Advantage of Immediate Punishment Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 22 Chapter XX - Of Acts of Violence Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 23 Chapter XXI - Of the Punishment of the Nobles Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 24 Chapter XXII - Of Robbery Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 25 Chapter XXIII - Of Infamy considered as a Punishment Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 26 Chapter XXIV - Of Idleness Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 27 Chapter XXV - Of Banishment and Confiscation Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 28 Chapter XXVI - Of the Spirit of Family in States Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 29 Chapter XXVII - Of the Mildness of Punishments Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 30 Chapter XXVIII - Of the Punishment of Death Crln Yldz Ksr
00:22:02
Play 31 Chapter XXIX - Of Imprisonment Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 32 Chapter XXX - Of Prosecution and Prescription Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 33 Chapter XXXI - Of Crimes of Difficult Proof Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 34 Chapter XXXII - Of Suicide Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 35 Chapter XXXIII - Of Smuggling Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 36 Chapter XXXIV - Of Bankrupts Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 37 Chapter XXXV - Of Sanctuaries Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 38 Chapter XXXVI - Of Rewards for Apprehending or Killing Criminals Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 39 Chapter XXXVII - Of Attempts, Acomplices and Pardon Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 40 Chapter XXXVIII - Of Suggestive Interrogations Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 41 Chapter XXXIX - Of a Peculiar Kind of Crimes Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 42 Chapter XL - Of False Ideas of Utility Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 43 Chapter XLI - Of the Means of Preventing Crimes Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 44 Chapter XLII - Of the Sciences Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 45 Chapter XLIII - Of Magistrates Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 46 Chapter XLIV - Of Rewards Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 47 Chapter XLV - Of Education Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 48 Chapter XLVI - Of Pardons Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 49 Chapter XLVII - Conclusion Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 50 Commentary - Chapter I - The Circumstances that Occasioned this Commentary Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 51 Commentary - Chapter II - Of Punishments Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 52 Commentary - Chapter III - Of the Punishment of Heretics Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 53 Commentary - Chapter IV - Of the Extirpation of Heresies Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 54 Commentary - Chapter V - Of Blasphemy and Profanation Crln Yldz Ksr
00:10:25
Play 55 Commentary - Chapter VI - Of the Indulgence of the Romans in Matters of Religion Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 56 Commentary - Chapter VII - Of the Crime of Unlawful Preaching - Story of Anthony Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 57 Commentary - Chapter VIII - The Story of Simon Morin Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 58 Commentary - Chapter IX - Of Witches Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 59 Commentary - Chapter X - Of Capital Punishment Crln Yldz Ksr
00:06:29
Play 60 Commentary - Chapter XI - Of the Execution of Sentences Crln Yldz Ksr
00:04:04
Play 61 Commentary - Chapter XII - Of Torture Crln Yldz Ksr
00:04:05
Play 62 Commentary - Chapter XIII - Of Certain Sanguinary Tribunals Crln Yldz Ksr
00:04:22
Play 63 Commentary - Chapter XIV - Of the Difference Between Political and Natural Laws Crln Yldz Ksr
00:05:10
Play 64 Commentary - Chapter XV - Of the Crime of High Treason - Of Titus Oates and of the Death of Augustine de Thou Crln Yldz Ksr
00:10:19
Play 65 Commentary - Chapter XVI - Of the Revealing of Crimes (Before Commission) by Religious Confession Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 66 Commentary - Chapter XVII - Of Counterfeiting Money Crln Yldz Ksr
00:01:58
Play 67 Commentary - Chapter XVIII - Of Domestic Theft Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 68 Commentary - Chapter XIX - Of Suicide Crln Yldz Ksr
00:05:27
Play 69 Commentary - Chapter XX - Of a Certain Species of Mutilation Crln Yldz Ksr
00:02:15
Play 70 Commentary - Chapter XXI - Of the Confiscation Consequent upon all the Crimes which Have Been Mentioned Crln Yldz Ksr
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Play 71 Commentary - Chapter XXII - Of Criminal Proceedings, and of Some Other Forms of Procedure Crln Yldz Ksr
00:15:26
Play 72 Commentary - Chapter XXIII - The Idea of a Reform Suggested Crln Yldz Ksr
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